Alzheimer’s disease is known as being a progressive degenerative disease that has been mainly diagnosed by clinical features that include the progressive impairment of cognitive orientation, function, language disturbance, motor activity and difficulty with identifying and recognizing persons and objects. Some of the histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease includes neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques that are obtained respectively by the deposition by the hyperohosphorylated Tau protein and aggregated amyloid peptide. The prevalence of Alzheimer’s diseases that has progressively increased throughout the world’s population. There are thirty-five million people that have been considered to be affected by Alzheimer’s Diseases and it is expected that this number will double over the next few decades. An increase in the incidence of obesity has also been observed over the last few years. It has been shown that obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in countries with developed statuses. In fact, there have been some studies that have shown obesity to be associated with a reduced cognitive performance within humans, as well as a decrease in brain volumes, and has also been correlated in increased probabilities in developing a cognitive decline, including Alzheimer’s diesease.
A high fat diet is a main factor that could promote obesity and previous studies, in rodents this has been shown to produce memory and learning impairments.The materials and methods that were used for this study were Mice, Glucose, Insulin and Insulin Tolerance Tests, Western Blotting and Total Protein Extraction and Insoluble Brain Fractions and Preparation of Soluble. Also included was Nuclear Protein Extracts and Preparation of Cytoplasmic, Immunomorphological Analyses: Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence, Quantitative Real-Time qPCR, RT2 ProfilerPCR Array and Statistical Analysis. Results included the effects on the high fat diet on Body and Brain Weights, Alzheimer’s diesease markers increase in Brains from High Fat Diet versus Control Fed Mice and High Fat Diet Fed Mice Showing Insulin Resistance. In conclusion, it was shown that preventing the metabolic and cellular dysfunctions common to both obesity and Alzheimer’s diesease may not just attenuate pathological events with the peripheral organs, but also those of the brain.
At a University of the Rochester Medical Center has suggested that the electronic cigarettes are equally as damaging to the teeth and gums as the effects of conventional cigarettes. The study that was published by Oncotarget, was the first study in addressing e-cigarettes and the detrimental effects on oral health in molecular and cellular levels. In had been shown previously that scientist have thought that chemicals that are found in cigarette smoke are the culprits in adverse health effects. This was included in the growing body of the scientific data, which includes the current study.During the study, that included an exposed 3-D human, including non-smoker gum tissue with the vapors of e-cigarettes. And through this found that the flavored chemicals have played a role on damaging cells within the mouth. Most of the e-cigarettes contain a battery, cartridge for holding liquid and a battery. This typically includes flavorings, nicotine and other chemicals. And the battery powered device heats the liquid in the cartridge into aerosol that in turn the user inhales.